Feodor Vladimirovich Bucholtz was born in Warsaw in 1872. In 1895 he graduated from Moscow University, where he studied under the supervision of the well-known Russian botanist Professor I.N. Gorozhankin. In 1896 F.V. Bucholtz was sent abroad, where he had probation on plant morphology and pathology in Bern at the Laboratory of E. Fisher and in Munich at the Laboratory of R. Hartig. Returning from the assignment in 1897 F.V. Bucholtz got an appointment of lecturer of botany at the Chair of Riga Polytechnical Institute. At that time he commence on the research of hypogeal fungi.
One of the first publications of F.V. Bucholtz was dedicated to investigation of the development of truffle fungi. Subsequently F.V. Bucholtz studied intensively hypogeal fungi of different taxonomic groups of the Baltic Region and published the result of his investigations in such far-famed journals as Berichte der deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft, Hedwigia, Proceedings of the Botanical Garden of Yur'yev University etc.
With time F.V. Bucholtz generalized fungi descriptions found up to that time in Russia as well as data on hypogeal fungi morphology and systematics in a large manuscript. In 1902 the manuscript was published in Riga as the edition of the Museum of Natural History of Countess E.P. Sheremetyeva in Mikhaylovskoye village of Moscow province. In 1903 this monograph was submitted for defence at Moscow University as a Master's thesis. At the same time on the basis of dissertation materials the article "Zur Morphologie und Systematik der Fungi hypogaei" was published in Annales Mycologici.
After successful defence of his thesis, F.V. Bucholtz was assigned to the post of adjunct-professor and then, since 1907 he held the position of the professor at Riga Polytechnical Institute. All this period he gave lectures on botany and plant physiology and continued investigation of hypogeal fungi. His attention was attracted by peculiarities of development of ascocarp and some other structures in such genera as Choiromyces, Balsamia and Endogone. The representatives of genus Endogone were of special interest. Besides revealing the peculiarities of their morphology, F.V. Bucholtz conducted also their cytological investigation. The results of this study were summarized in monograph "New data to morphology and cytology of hypogeal fungi (Fungi hypogaei). Chapter I. Genus Endogone Link" (1911). In the book the newest data on fertilization process in Endogone lactiflua were presented. The stepwise tracing of copulation, female gamete structure, development of zygotes and other features allowed to draw a conclusion about the systematic position of the genus Endogone, which was ranked among Ascomycetes before Bucholtz's investigations. F.V. Bucholtz demonstrated that mycelium of E. lactiflua has an unarticulated structure and sporocarp is formed from more or less loosely twisted plectenhyma with accumulation of zygotes inside. F.V. Bucholtz defined such type of sporocarp as zygosporocarp. Thus, he recognized the attributing of this fungi to Zygomycetes, although wrote, that E. lactiflua belongs to Siphonomycetes. For conducting his comparative analysis of E. lactiflua F.V. Bucholtz brought together specimens of other species of this genus from different herbaria of Russia, Germany, France, Switzerland and Italy. Based on a comparison of the degree of development of structures and products of sexual process the species under study were divided into 4 groups. The first one includes E. lactiflua and E. ludwigii, species new for science, described by F.V. Bucholtz on the basis of material sent from Germany by Professor F. Ludwig. They are characterized by the presence of genital organs and zygotes. For the second group (E. macrocarpa and E. microcarpa) only chlamydospores are characteristic. The third group includes only one species E. pisiformis, possessing sporangia. Representatives of the fourth group (E. lignicola and E. fulva) have whether sporangia or thin-shelled chlamydospores, i.e. the type of reproductive organs is indefinite. F.V. Bucholtz paid a great deal of attention to the consideration of relationships between representatives of the genus Endogone and Ascomycetes. He emphasized that E. lactiflua possesses a number of features, making related the lower fungi with ascomycetes: carrying-over the nuclei fusion (karyogamy) into daughter cell of gamete, which resembles the short ascogenous hyphae of Ascomycetes; formation of structure resembling sporocarp as a result of hyphae intertwining around zygotes. F.V. Bucholtz suggested that revealing of conjugate but yet unmerged parental nuclei acknowledged the presence of incipient diploid generation in E. lactiflua. In 1913 F.V. Bucholtz defended this monograph in Moscow University as the Doctoral thesis.
Hypogeal fungi were the main but not the only subject of mycological investigations of F.V. Bucholtz. In 1897 he published the list of fungi belonging to different systematic groups, collected in 1896 during his trip to Michailovskoye village of Moscow province. Later on, working at Riga Polytechnicum, he collected fungi of genera Boletus and Puccinia, family Peronosporaceae, order Ustilaginales all over the Baltic region and dedicated thorough enough publications to these taxa. F.V. Bucholtz was interested also in some general problems of mycology: Ascomycetes systematics, fertilization process peculiarities, nuclear state of fungi spores etc.
In 1912 F.V. Bucholtz was elected the Dean of Agricultural Division of Riga Polytechnicum. At that time he intended to issue the Fungi Rossici Exsiccati and proceeded to the realization of this mycological idea. In 1915-1917 he succeeded in publishing 9 issues of exsiccati in the Proceedings and Transactions of Agricultural Division of Riga Polytechnic, which are the exemplary works till the present time.
When the First World War began, F.V. Bucholtz had to evacuate from Riga to Moscow. In order to save his invaluable collections and herbarium, F.V. Bucholtz sent them to Moscow as heavy luggage. But in the confusion of wartime these materials were lost. In Moscow F.V. Bucholtz gave lecturers on botany at Moscow Agricultural Institute. In 1917 he returned to the Baltic States, where he headed the Chair and the Botanical Garden of Derpt (Yuryev, Tartu) University. F.V. Bucholtz died in May 1924.
Biographies & obituaries. Mycological Notes by C.G. Lloyd 68: 1169, 1923; Mycological Notes by C.G. Lloyd 73: 1322, 1924 Lists. Taxa. Kirk & Ansell form of name: Bucholtz [alternative forms include: 'Buchholts' and 'Buchholz'].