Identification Keys

Clave 3: Herbaceous, epiphytic, or climbing plants, and lianas, sometimes hairless

1 Plants with no flowers or fruit, sporangios on underside of leaves (ferns) or in strobiles 2
Plants with true flowers and fruit 9

2 (1) Sporangios on underside of leaves, plants without seeds, leaves may be pinnate (ferns) 3
Sporangios grouped in strobiles, plants with seeds, leaves pinnate Zamia amblyphyllidia

3(2) Leaf surface entire 4
Leaf surface pinnatisect, 1-pinnate or more 5

4(3) Stem shortly trailing, leaf surface more than 20 cm long and 4 cm wide, sori in two lines on either side of lateral veins Campyloneurum phyllitidis
Stem climbing, leaf surface at least 15 cm long, 1 cm wide, sori in one line on both side of midrib Microgramma heterophylla

5 (3) Leaf pinnatisect Phlebodium aureum
Leaf 1-pinnate or more 6

6 (5) Leaves pseudo-dichotomous Dicranopteris pectinata
Leaves never divided in dichotomous fashion 7

7 (6) Pinnae adnate to rhachis Pecluma plumula
Pinnae not adnate to rhachis 8

8 (7) Sori oblong, over lateral veins of segments, stem scales latticed Asplenium dentatum
Sori protected by leaf-margin's reflexed lobe, stem scales not latticed Adiantum fragile

9 (1) Leaves simple 10
Leaves compound 50

10 (9) Leaves linear or lanceolate, with parallel venation 11
Leaves in other shape, with pinnate venation 28

11 (10) Leaves more than 60 cm long and 6 cm wide 12
Leaves under 60 cm long and 6 cm wide 14

12 (11) Leaves succulent, thick, inflorescences over 1 m long 13
Leaves not succulent, papery, inflorescences under 1 m long Hohenbergia penduliflora

13 (12) Leaves markedly mucronate, flowers with yellow perianth Agave tubulata
Leaves not markedly mucronate, flowers with white perianth Furcraea hexapetala

14 (11) Plants epiphyitic 15
Plants ground growing, may be climbing 21

15 (14) Leaves papery, in rosette, flowers more or less actinomorphic 16
Leaves fleshy or coriaceous, not in rosette, flowers very zigomorphic 18

16 (15) Leaf margins more or less parallel to the end, inflorescence simple, petals united Guzmania monostachya
Margins not parallel, leaves elongated, triangular, tapering towards the apex, inflorescences simple or branching, petals separate 17

17 (16) Leaves soft, inflorescence simple or with 2-3 branches, never palmate, floral bracts under 1 cm Tillandsia variabilis
Leaves rigid, inflorescence slightly or densely palmate, 2-3 pinnate, 3-15 spikes (generally 8), floral bracts over 1 cm Tillandsia fasciculata

18 (15) Stems becoming pseudo-bulbs, leaves larger than 15 cm, not distichous Encyclia cochleata
Stems elongated, leaves under 15 cm, distichous 19

19 (18) Flowers mostly solitary Epidendrum nocturnum
Flowers in inflorescences 20

20 (19) Leaves 3-8 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, flowers in spike Epidendrum rigidum
Leaves 5-12 cm long, up to 5 cm wide, flowers in umbels Epidendrum secundum

21 (14) Leaves fleshy or coriaceous 22
Leaves membraneous to papery 23

22 (21) Plant not climbing, leaves with small, almost white patches Oeceoclades maculata
Plant climbing, leaves without patches Vanilla phaeantha

23 (21) Plant climbing, inflorescence in umbel, perianth pink, about 2 cm, fruit in capsule Bomarea edulis
Plants may be climbing, inflorescence not in umbel, flowers small, without perianth, fruit in grain 24

24 (23) Culms woody, sheath with bristle at apex, spicules cylindrical, 3-4 florets, one directly attached Arthrostylidium reflexum
Culms herbaceous or slightly woody (bambusiform) 25

25 (24) Culms herbaceous, limbs flat with scabrid margins 26
Culms bambusiform, leaves with short petioles 27

26 (25) Panicles racemose, densely seriaceous. Spicules germinating, with unequal pedicels, 4-4.5 mm, slightly acuminate, densely pilose Digitaria insularis
Panicle compound, spicule directly attached, 3-5 mm, without arista, with villous callus at base, apex of each raceme more developed than the rest Andropogon bicornis

27 (25) Spicules pistilate, with long pedicels, leaves with glabrous or hispid sheaths, limbs oblong-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, up to 20 cm by 1.5-7 cm Olyra latifolia
Spicules almost globous or ovoid, leaves distichous, sheaths glabrescent or slightly pubescent, margins ciliate. Limbs linear-lanceolate, 3-12 cm by 4-12 mm Lasiacis divaricata

28 (10) Plants ground growing 29
Plants epiphytic, climbing, or lianas 40

29 (28) Leaf-surface over 20 cm long, inflorescence spathe-shaped 30
Leaf surface under 20 cm long, inflorescence in other form 31

30 (29) Leaf surface ovate to oblong, shiny, peduncle and inflorescence as long or longer than leaves Anthurium venosum
Leaf surface obovate, not shiny, peduncle and inflorescence much shorter than leaves Anthurium cubense

31 (29) Leaves alternate 32
Leaves opposite or in whorls 37

32 (31) Leaf margin entire 33
Leaf margin dentate, serrate, or lobed 35

33 (32) Leaves fleshy, flowers very small, in dense spikes 34
Leaves papery, flowers up to 4 cm, attractive, in lax spikes Plumbago scandens

34 (33) Petiole up to 1 cm, leaf generally ovate to ovate-elliptic Peperomia glabella
Petiole over 1 cm, leaf generally obovate, obovate-elliptic to almost orbicular Peperomia magnoliifolia

35 (32) Plants with stinging hairs, flowers small, green, in axillary groups Fleurya havanensis
Plant without stinging hairs, flowers attractive, pink or yellow, generally solitary 36

36 (35) Leaf surface broadly ovate, often 3-5 lobed, over 3 cm wide, petals pink Urena lobata
Leaf surface elongated ovate to oblong-lanceolate, under 2 cm wide, petals yellow Sida spinosa

37 (31) Leaves in whorls, fleshy Peperomia verticillata
Leaves opposite, papery 38

38 (37) Leaf margin lobed, base generally truncated to almost heart-shaped Phania matricarioides
Leaf margin entire, base pointed to obtuse or rounded 39

39 (38) Leaves generally longer than 8 cm, elongated acuminate at apex, flowers in terminal panicles Ancistranthus harpochiloides
Leaves up to 8 cm long, pointed to acuminate at apex, flowers in spikes Justicia roigii

40 (28) Plants epiphytic 41
Climbers or lianas 42

41 (40) Petiole under 1 cm, leaf surface generally ovate to ovate-elliptic Peperomia glabella
Petiole over 1 cm, leaf surface generally obovate, obovate-elliptic to almost orbicular Peperomia magnoliifolia

42 (40) Climbers with adventitious roots, leaves over 10 cm long, inflorescence in spathe 43
Climbers or lianas without adventitious roots, leaves generally shorter than 10 cm, inflorescence in other form 44

43 (42) Leaves pinnatilobate Philodendron lacerum
Leaves never pinnatilobate Philodendron consanguineum

44 (42) Leaves elliptic-oblong, up to 3 cm long, 1 cm wide Aristolochia tigrina
Leaves ovate, ovate-elliptic, ovate-lanceolate, cordate or cordiform-hastate, over 3 cm long and 1 cm wide 45

45 (44) Leaves cordiform or cordiform-hastate, base deeply cordate, margin entire 46
Leaves ovate to ovate-elliptic or almost cordate, base obtuse or crenate 48

46 (45) Leaf apex acuminate, flowers actinomorphic Ipomoea nil
Leaf apex obtuse to rounded, flowers zygomorphic 47

47 (46) Leaves cordiform, with pseudo-stipule Aristolochia elegans
Leaves cordiform-hastate, without pseudo-stipule Aristolochia glandulosa

48 (45) Leaves pubescent on both sides, inflorescence surrounded by two large ovate-deltoid bracts Dalechampia denticulata
Leaves almost glabrous, inflorescences without bracts 49

49 (48) Leaves membranous, flowers in racemes, fruit dry, 3-winged Gouania lupuloides
Leaves slightly fleshy, flowers in cymes, fruit in berry Cissus sicyoides

50 (9) Leaves with 2 leaflets Neomacfadya podopogon
Leaves with 3 leaflets 51

51 (50) Leaflet margin comonly serrated, apex pointed to acuminate Clematis dioica
Leaflet margin entire, apex abruptly acuminate Mucuna urens

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